Anti Thyroglobulin Antibodies

Test Name Anti Thyroglobulin antibodies (ATG)

Test Description

Anti Thyroglobulin antibodies (ATG) are directed against Thyroglobulin which is produced by the thyroid gland. Thyroglobulin is the precursor of T3 and T4 hormones which are essential for almost all metabolic activities in the body. ATG antibodies are organ specific autoantibodies that occur after the thyroid gland gets inflamed or is injured, due to a viral infection, or even cancer. ATG test determines the presence and levels of these antibodies in the bloodstream. Higher levels of ATG may be found in autoimmune disorders such as Graves’ disease or Hasimoto thyroiditis.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Anti Strepsolysin O

Test Name Anti Strepsolysin O (ASO)

Test Description

Anti Strepsolysin O (ASO) is an antibody which is targeted against toxic enzyme streptolysin O produced by group A streptococcus bacteria. These are most commonly associated with sore throat and other systemic infections such as cellulitis, pyoderma and impetigo. Few instances of severe complications may develop such as rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis in children. These complications can progress to severe conditions such as heart damage, kidney dysfunction, edema, and hypertension. ASO test helps to determine if the causative agent of all these complications is streptococcus bacteria.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Anti Sperm Antibody

Test Name Anti Sperm Antibody (ASA)

Test Description

Anti Sperm Antibody (ASA) are antibodies that develop auto-immunity towards sperms and hence are considered the cause of infertility. These antibodies are believed to interfere with the motility of the sperms as well as their capability of penetrating the cervical mucus and zona pellucida. Mainly ASA IgM antibodies are produced when the sperm antigens get exposed to a person’s immune system. This can happen either due to some infection or due to distress after any surgical procedure. Anti Sperm Antibody test detects presence and levels of ASA IgM antibodies in the bloodstream and is recommended marker for determining human infertility. These antibodies can be found in the blood, vaginal fluids or semen and either of these can be potential sample types.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Beta 2 Glycoprotein 1 Antibodies

Test Name Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies

Test Description

Beta 2 glycoprotein 1 antibodies are one of the primary auto-antibodies that mistakenly attack the body’s own phospholipids that are present in the cell membranes and platelets. It is associated with inappropriate blood clotting. It is a unique protein significant in haemostatis, homeostatis and immunity. B2GP1 test detects and measures levels of this protein in the bloodstream. Higher levels are found in conditions like antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), which is typically characterized by pregnancy morbidity and vascular thrombosis.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Apolipoprotein B

Test Name Apolipoprotein B

Test Description

Apolipoprotein B is a core protein component of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) that plays a specific role in lipid metabolism. APOB combines with dietary lipids in the liver to form LDL and VLDL which are then transported to the tissues. These complexes are rich in triglycerides and cholesterol which are essential to maintain the cell integrity as well as production of sex hormones. APOB test helps in determination of its levels in the bloodstream. Increase in APOB levels is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Anti Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen (Anti-HBeAg)

Test Name Anti Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen (Anti-HBeAg)

Test Description

Anti Hepatitis B Envelope Antigen (Anti-HBeAg) Total are antibodies developed against hepatitis B envelop antigen (HBeAg). Anti- HBeAg test helps to detect and measure the levels of these antibodies in the bloodstream. Anti HBe is the second antibody to appear and is associated with rapid clearance of HBeAg. It is a specific marker as its presence in blood is recognized to be a clinical sign of body. A negative result indicates very low or no hepatitis B virus whereas a positive test indicates active infection and that the person can even spread the infection to others.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Apolipoprotein A1

Test Name

Apolipoprotein A1

Test Description

Apolipoprotein A1 is a core protein component of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) that plays a specific role in lipid metabolism. APO A activates certain enzymes that help HDL in eliminating cholesterol from tissues and bringing them to the liver. APO A also stimulates the receptors on the liver to accept the HDL that collected cholesterol. APO A test helps in the determination of its levels in the bloodstream. The decrease in APO A levels is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

It thus facilitates this transport which is the only means in which cholesterol can be prevented from accumulating inside of the tissues.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Anti phospholipid antibodies

Test Name

Anti phospholipid antibodies

 Test Description

Antiphospholipid antibodies are a group of antibodies classified as anti cardiolipin antibodies and the lupus anticoagulant. These antiphospholipid antibodies are directed against phospholipids, complexes formed with phospholipids, and proteins that bind with phospholipids. The antiphospholipid antibody test helps in determining the presence and levels of these antibodies in the bloodstream. These antibodies are produced in autoimmune disorder in which the immunity system attacks its normal protein in the body particularly beta-2-glycoprotein I and prothrombin.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

Androstenedione (A4)

Test Name

Androstenedione (A4)

Test Description

Androstenedione (A4) is a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testicles. It acts as a precursor in the synthesis of estrone and testosterone. This hormone is significantly responsible for the onset of sexual differentiation in males and the development of secondary male characteristics.  An increased level of androstenedione may indicate an adrenal tumor or cancer, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This elevation is usually due to the overproduction of hormones by the adrenal, ovarian or testicular glands.

Clinical significance

 

 Symptoms

 

Diagnosis

 

Technology

 

Automation

 

Related Tests and Profiles

 

 Treatment

 

Source and Supplements

 

 

AMYLASE

Test Name

Amylase


Test Description

Amylase is a digestive enzyme produced by the pancreas and salivary glands. Amylase helps in the breakdown of complex carbohydrates into simple sugars which can be easily absorbed into the body’s system. The body is able to produce energy using these simple sugars. This test is used to measure the amylase levels in the bloodstream. High levels of amylase in blood or urine indicate a disorder of the pancreas. Additional tests such as lipase may be prescribed by a doctor to better understand the condition. 


Clinical significance

 


Symptoms

 


Diagnosis

 


Technology

 


Automation

 


Related Tests and Profiles

 


Source and Supplements